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The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas , wildcats, and leopards. The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan.

A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan—India border and in some parts of Cholistan. The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems.

Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.

The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues. Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation.

The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism , conservatism , and the third way.

As of the general elections held in , the three main political parties in the country are: As the Muslim world 's second most populous nation-state after Indonesia and its only nuclear power state, Pakistan has an important role in the international community. Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory.

Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.

Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s, and during the Soviet—Afghan War in the s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States. A close ally of the United States during the Cold war , Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.

Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ; [] nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas. Pakistan was the first country to have established formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China , and the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India in , forming a special relationship. Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas.

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries [] and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world , or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity. Such developments along with Pakistan's creation did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.

Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco , and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.

On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions.

Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations with the Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan's foreign policy. A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan [] and three territories: The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions , which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit—Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.

In , the constitutional assignment the Gilgit—Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order awarded the Gilgit—Baltistan a semi-provincial status , giving it self-government. The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts , tehsils , and union councils , with an elected body at each tier. Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory.

Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence ISI , was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts , Federal Shariat Courts one in each province and one in the federal capital , District Courts one in each district , Judicial Magistrate Courts in every town and city , Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts. The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.

The Kashmir —the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan. The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in , , and The conflict in witnessed Pakistan's unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh. India claims the Kashmir on the basis of the Instrument of Accession —a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by Maharaja Hari Singh , who agreed to cede the area to India.

However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in establishing a Line of Control LoC that divided Kashmir between the two nations. Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations, [] while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.

The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory ICT each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory.

The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service , which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan. Namely, there are four provincial police service including the Punjab Police , Sindh Police , Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police , and the Balochistan Police ; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals.

The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial police service. The law enforcement in Pakistan also has a Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's inter-provincial motorway network. In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police.

The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about , personnel on active duty and , reservists, as of tentative estimates in The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces.

The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan. Territorial problems eventually led to another conventional war in ; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to another war in which resulted in Pakistan's unconditional surrender in East Pakistan. In , the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border. Rising tensions with neighbouring USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community , mostly the ISI , systematically coordinated the US resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region.

Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force , supported by the Afghan Air Force during the course of the conflict ; [] one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy.

It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu , Somalia, in in Operation Gothic Serpent. Pakistan has deployed its military in some Arab countries , providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles. Pakistan's fighter pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque 's compound.

Since the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan , mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions. Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP.

This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment. The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5. It is South Asia's second-largest economy, representing about Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied.

It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of martial law , although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed.

In Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in the world by Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a "low-income to a middle-income country during the next five years".

Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th-largest in the world. The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture as of [update] accounts for only It accounts for A large portion of the country's manufactured exports are dependent on raw materials such as cotton and hides that are part of the agriculture sector, while supply shortages and market disruptions in farm products do push up inflationary pressures.

The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1. Land and water resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity. The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late s and s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice. Private tube wells led to a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation.

While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties HYVs of wheat and rice led to a 50—60 percent higher yield. Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for Large-scale manufacturing LSM , at Pakistan's cement industry is also fast growing mainly because of demand from Afghanistan and from the domestic real estate sector.

In Pakistan exported 7,, metric tons of cement. In and , the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy. The textile industry has a pivotal position in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of textile products, contributing 9. Unlike the US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and cotton fabric from Pakistan.

In , Pakistani textile products accounted for 3. Services sector has The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial sector. Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in and little over one-third of total employment.

Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector. T sector is regarded as among the fastest growing sector's in Pakistan. The World Economic Forum , assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan th among countries on the 'Networked Readiness Index '.

As of [update] , Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration. This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services exports was 3pc and 7. By the end of , nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants.

The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early s. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October , and given prominence as a counter to the US—India agreement that shortly preceded it. In Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in Chashma. The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the s and s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan.

The country continues to attract an estimated , foreign tourists annually. The country's tourist destinations range from the Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Taxila , to the 5,year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. In October , just one year after the Kashmir earthquake , The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan" in order to help the country's tourism industry. To promote Pakistan's unique cultural heritage, the government organizes various festivals throughout the year.

The National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north—south links connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Although this network only accounts for 4. From until the s the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry. Beginning in the s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country. There are an estimated airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly owned civilian airports.

Though Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, the international airports in Lahore , Islamabad , Peshawar , Quetta , Faisalabad , Sialkot , and Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic.

The civil aviation industry is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in Developments in science and technology have played an important role in Pakistan's infrastructure and helped the country connect to the rest of the world.

In chemistry , Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists.

Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology , physical martensite , and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics. In Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers. The s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic rocketry , electronics , and aeronomy.

The successful launch of its first rocket into space made Pakistan the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task. As an aftermath of the war with India , the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention , while ushering in the atomic age in the post cold war era. Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an active research presence in Antarctica.

Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet users in the world. Since the s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing , and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing. The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education.

At the time of the establishment of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, Punjab University in Lahore. Pakistan has a large network of both public and private universities, which includes collaboration between the universities aimed at providing research and higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools.

Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: Some students choose to take the O-level and A level exams conducted by the British Council. As a result of initiatives taken in , the English medium education has been made compulsory in all schools across the country. According to Provisional results of Census in Pakistan , the total population in Pakistan was At the time of the partition in , Pakistan had a population of In Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.

Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of provincial languages.

The Punjabi language , the most common in Pakistan and the first language of Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is well understood in Sindh and Balochistan. Brahui , a Dravidian language, is spoken by the Brahui people who live in Balochistan. The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan.

It declares in article 31 No. Even after partition in , Indian Muslims continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the s and s, and these migrants settled mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province. The Pakistan Census excludes the 1. Pakistan is home to one of the world's largest refugee populations. They are claimed to be from other areas such as Myanmar , Iran, Iraq, and Africa.

Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese Rohingya to Pakistan started in the s and continued until Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the Pakistani Bengali Action Committee, claims that there are settlements of Bengali-speaking people in Pakistan, of which are in Karachi. Thousands of Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang, China.

The population is dominated by four main ethnic groups: Punjabis , Pashtuns Pathans , Sindhis , and Balochs. Since achieving independence as a result of the partition of India, the urbanisation has increased exponentially, with several different causes.

During the period —, city dwellers made up One analysis of the national census highlighted the significance of the partition of India in the s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan. Inevitably, the rapid urbanisation caused by these large population movements has also created new political and socio-economic challenges. The state religion in Pakistan is Sunni Islam.

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan , which provides all its citizens the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order, and morality. The population of Pakistan follow different religions.

Most of Pakistanis are Muslims There are also people in Pakistan who follow other religions, such as Sikhism , Buddhism , Jainism and the minority of Parsi who follow Zoroastrianism. In addition, some Pakistanis also do not profess any faith such as atheists and agnostics in Pakistan. According to the census, people who did not state their religion accounted for 0.

Pakistan has the second-largest number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. The Ahmadis , a small minority representing 0. In , Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from being called "mosques".

Sufism , a mystical Islamic tradition, has a long history and a large following among the Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, at both the academic and popular levels. Popular Sufi culture is centered around gatherings and celebrations at the shrines of saints and annual festivals that feature Sufi music and dance. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore c. There are two levels of Sufism in Pakistan. The first is the 'populist' Sufism of the rural population.

This level of Sufism involves belief in intercession through saints, veneration of their shrines, and forming bonds with a pir saint. Many rural Pakistani Muslims associate with pirs and seek their intercession. Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the census.

At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' gained currency. According to this theory, the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.

I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be.

Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India. Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population of 2,,, according to the census. The influence of atheism is very small, with 1. Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life.

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